About The Drug Xylocaine aka Lidocaine

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Find Xylocaine side effects, uses, warnings, interactions and indications. Xylocaine is also known as Lidocaine.

Xylocaine

Xylocaine Prescription Drug Bottle
About Xylocaine aka Lidocaine

What's The Definition Of The Medical Condition Xylocaine?

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Mechanism Of Action Lidocaine stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action. Onset And Duration Of Anesthesia When used for infiltration anesthesia in dental patients, the time of onset averages less than two minutes for each of the two forms of Xylocaine. 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:50,000 (lidocaine HCl 2% solution with a 1:50,000 epinephrine concentration) or 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:100,000 (lidocaine HCl 2% solution with a 1:100,000 epinephrine concentration) provide an average pulp anesthesia of at least 60 minutes with an average duration of soft tissue anesthesia of approximately 2 ½ hours. When used for nerve blocks in dental patients, the time of onset for both forms of 2% Xylocaine DENTAL averages 2-4 minutes. 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:50,000 (lidocaine HCl 2% solution with a 1:50,000 epinephrine concentration) or 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:100,000 (lidocaine HCl 2% solution with a 1:100,000 epinephrine concentration) provide pulp anesthesia averaging at least 90 minutes with an average duration of soft tissue anesthesia of 3 to 3 ¼ hours. Hemodynamics Excessive blood levels may cause changes in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure. These changes may be attributable to a direct depressant effect of the local anesthetic agent on various components of the cardiovascular system and/or the beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating action of epinephrine when present. Pharmacokinetics And Metabolism Information derived from diverse formulations, concentrations and usages reveals that lidocaine is completely absorbed following parenteral administration, its rate of absorption depending, for example, upon various factors such as the site of administration and the presence or absence of a vasoconstrictor agent. Except for intravascular administration, the highest blood levels are obtained following intercostal nerve block and the lowest after subcutaneous administration. The plasma binding of lidocaine is dependent on drug concentration, and the fraction bound decreases with increasing concentratlon. At concentration of 1 to 4 μg of free base per mL, 60 to 80 percent of lidocaine is protein bound. Binding is also dependent on the plasma concentration of the alpha-l-acid glycoprotein. Lidocaine crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers, presumably by passive diffusion. Lidocaine is metabolized rapidly by the liver, and metabolites and unchanged drug are excreted by the kidneys. Biotransformation includes oxidative N-dealkylation, ring hydroxylation, cleavage of the amide linkage, and conjugation. N-dealkylation, a major pathway of biotransformation, yields the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide and glycinexylidide. The pharmacological/toxicological actions of these metabolites are similar to, but less potent than those of lidocaine. Approximately 90% of lidocaine administered is excreted in the form of various metabolites, and less than 10% is excreted unchanged. The primary metabolite in urine is a conjugate of 4-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethylaniline. Studies of lidocaine metabolism following intravenous bolus injections have shown that the elimination half-life of this agent is typically 1.5 to 2.0 hours. Because of the rapid rate at which lidocaine is metabolized, any condition that affects liver function may alter lidocaine kinetics. The half-life may be prolonged two-fold or more in patients with liver dysfunction. Renal dysfunction does not affect lidocaine kinetics but may increase the accumulation of metabolites. Factors such as acidosis and the use of CNS stimulants and depressants affect the CNS levels of lidocaine required to produce overt systemic effects. Objective adverse manifestations become increasingly apparent with increasing venous plasma levels above 6.0 μg free base per mL. In the rhesus monkey, arterial blood levels of 18-21 μg/mL have been shown to be the threshold for convulsive activity.

Clinical Pharmacology

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Mechanism of Action Lidocaine HCl stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses thereby effecting local anesthetic action. Hemodynamics Excessive blood levels may cause changes in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure. With central neural blockade these changes may be attributable to block of autonomic fibers, a direct depressant effect of the local anesthetic agent on various components of the cardiovascular system, and/or the beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating action of epinephrine when present. The net effect is normally a modest hypotension when the recommended dosages are not exceeded. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Information derived from diverse formulations, concentrations and usages reveals that lidocaine HCl is completely absorbed following parenteral administration, its rate of absorption depending, for example, upon various factors such as the site of administration and the presence or absence of a vasoconstrictor agent. Except for intravascular administration, the highest blood levels are obtained following intercostal nerve block and the lowest after subcutaneous administration. The plasma binding of lidocaine HCl is dependent on drug concentration, and the fraction bound decreases with increasing concentration. At concentrations of 1 to 4 mcg of free base per mL 60 to 80 percent of lidocaine HCl is protein bound. Binding is also dependent on the plasma concentration of the alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Lidocaine HCl crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers, presumably by passive diffusion. Lidocaine HCl is metabolized rapidly by the liver, and metabolites and unchanged drug are excreted by the kidneys. Biotransformation includes oxidative N-dealkylation, ring hydroxylation, cleavage of the amide linkage, and conjugation. N-dealkylation, a major pathway of biotransformation, yields the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide and glycinexylidide. The pharmacological/toxicological actions of these metabolites are similar to, but less potent than, those of lidocaine HCl. Approximately 90% of lidocaine HCl administered is excreted in the form of various metabolites, and less than 10% is excreted unchanged. The primary metabolite in urine is a conjugate of 4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylaniline. The elimination half-life of lidocaine HCl following an intravenous bolus injection is typically 1.5 to 2.0 hours. Because of the rapid rate at which lidocaine HCl is metabolized, any condition that affects liver function may alter lidocaine HCl kinetics. The half-life may be prolonged two-fold or more in patients with liver dysfunction. Renal dysfunction does not affect lidocaine HCl kinetics but may increase the accumulation of metabolites. Factors such as acidosis and the use of CNS stimulants and depressants affect the CNS levels of lidocaine HCl required to produce overt systemic effects. Objective adverse manifestations become increasingly apparent with increasing venous plasma levels above 6.0μg free base per mL. In the rhesus monkey arterial blood levels of 18–21 µg/mL have been shown to be threshold for convulsive activity.

Drug Description

2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:50,000 (Lidocaine HCl 2% and Epinephrine 1:50,000 Injection) 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:100,000 (Lidocaine HCl 2% and Epinephrine 1:100,000 Injection) DESCRIPTION 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:50,000 and 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:100,000 are sterile isotonic solutions containing a local anesthetic agent, Lidocaine Hydrochloride, and a vasoconstrictor, Epinephrine (as bitartrate) and are administered parenterally by injection. Both solutions are available in single dose cartridges of 1.7 mL (See INDICATIONS AND USAGE for specific uses). 2% Xylocaine DENTAL solutions contain lidocaine hydrochloride which is chemically designated as acetamide, 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-monohydrochloride, and has the following structural formula : Epinephrine is ( - )-3,4-Dihydroxy- α-[(Methylamino) methyl] benzyl alcohol and has the following structural formula: COMPOSITION OF THE 2% Xylocaine DENTAL INJECTIONS BRAND NAME PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION FORMULA SINGLE DOSE CARTRIDGE Lidocaine hydrochloride Concentration % Epinephrine (as the bitartrate) Dilution Sodium Chloride (mg/mL) Potassium metabisulfite (mg/mL) Edetate Disodium (mg/mL) 2% Xylocaine Dental with epinephrine 1:50,000 2 1:50,000 6.5 1.2 0.25 2% Xylocaine Dental with epinephrine 1:100,000 2 1:100,000 6.5 1.2 0.25 The pH of the 2% Xylocaine DENTAL solutions are adjusted to USP limits with sodium hydroxide.

Drug Description

Find Lowest Prices on Xylocaine® (lidocaine HCl) Injection, USP Xylocaine® (lidocaine HCl and epinephrine) Injection, USP For Infiltration and Nerve Block DESCRIPTION Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) Injections are sterile, nonpyrogenic, aqueous solutions that contain a local anesthetic agent with or without epinephrine and are administered parenterally by injection. See INDICATIONS for specific uses. Xylocaine solutions contain lidocaine HCl, which is chemically designated as acetamide, 2-(diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-, monohydrochloride and has the molecular wt. 270.8. Lidocaine HCl (C14H22N2O•HCl) has the following structural formula: Epinephrine is (-) -3, 4-Dihydroxy-α-[(methylamino) methyl] benzyl alcohol and has the molecular wt. 183.21. Epinephrine (C9H13NO3) has the following structural formula: Dosage forms listed as Xylocaine (lidocaine) -MPF indicate single dose solutions that are Methyl Paraben Free (MPF). Xylocaine (lidocaine) MPF is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution containing sodium chloride. Xylocaine (lidocaine) in multiple dose vials: Each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as antiseptic preservative. The pH of these solutions is adjusted to approximately 6.5 (5.0–7.0) with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid. Xylocaine (lidocaine) MPF with Epinephrine is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution containing sodium chloride. Each mL contains lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine, with 0.5 mg sodium metabisulfite as an antioxidant and 0.2 mg citric acid as a stabilizer. Xylocaine (lidocaine) with Epinephrine in multiple dose vials: Each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as antiseptic preservative. The pH of these solutions is adjusted to approximately 4.5 (3.3–5.5) with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid. Filled under nitrogen.

Indications & Dosage

INDICATIONS 2% Xylocaine DENTAL Solutions are indicated for the production of local anesthesia for dental procedures by nerve block or infiltration techniques. Only accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are recommended. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The dosage of 2% Xylocaine DENTAL solutions (lidocaine HCl and epinephrine) depends on the physical status of the patient, the area of the oral cavity to be anesthetized, the vascularity of the oral tissues, and the technique of anesthesia used. The least volume of solution that results in effective local anesthesia should be administered; time should be allowed between injections to observe the patient for manifestations of an adverse reaction. For specific techniques and procedures of a local anesthesia in the oral cavity, refer to standard textbooks. For most routine dental procedures, 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:100,000 (lidocaine HCl 2% with a 1:100,000 epinephrine concentration) is preferred. However, when greater depth and a more pronounced hemostasis are required, 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:50,000 (lidocaine HCl 2 % with 1:50,000 epinephrine concentration) should be used. Dosage requirements should be determined on an individual basis. In oral infiltration and / or mandibular block, initial dosages of 1.0 - 5.0 mL (½to 2½cartridges) of 2% Xylocaine DENTAL (lidocaine HCl 2% solutions with a 1:50,000 or a 1:100,000 epinephrine concentration) are usually effective. In children under 10 years of age, it is rarely necessary to administer more than one-half cartridge (0.9- 1.0 mL or 18-20 mg of lidocaine) per procedure to achieve local anesthesia for a procedure involving a single tooth. In maxillary infiltration, this amount will often suffice to the treatment of two or even three teeth. In the mandibular block, however, satisfactory anesthesia achieved with this amount of drug, will allow treatment of the teeth of an entire quadrant. Aspiration is recommended since it reduces the possibility of intravascular injection, thereby keeping the incidence of side effects and anesthetic failures to a minimum. Moreover, injection should always be made slowly. Maximum recommended dosages for 2% Xylocaine DENTAL (lidocaine HCl 2% solutions with a 1:50,000 or a 1:100,000 epinephrine concentration). Adult For normal healthy adults, the amount of lidocaine HCl administered should be kept below 500 mg, and in any case, should not exceed 7 mg/kg (3.2 mg/lb) of body weight. Pediatric Pediatric patients: It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for pediatric patients since this varies as a function of age and weight. For pediatric patients of less than ten years who have a normal lean body mass and normal body development, the maximum dose may be determined by the application of one of the standard pediatric drug formulas (e.g., Clark's rule). For example, in pediatric patients of five years weighing 50 Ibs, the dose of lidocaine hydrochloride should not exceed 75- 100mg when calculated according to Clark's rule. In any case, the maximum dose of lidocaine hydrochloride should not exceed 7 mg/kg (3.2 mg/lb) of body weight. NOTE: Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever the solution and container permit. Solutions that are discolored and or contain particulate matter should not be used and any unused portion of a cartridge of 2% Xylocaine DENTAL should be discarded. HOW SUPPLIED 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:50,000 (Lidocaine hydrochloride 2% and Epinephrine 1:50,000 injection) is available in cardboard boxes containing 5 blisters of 10 — 1.7 mL cartridges (NDC 66312-181-16). 2% Xylocaine DENTAL with epinephrine 1:100,000 (Lidocaine hydrochloride 2% and Epinephrine 1:100,000 injection) is available in cardboard boxes containing 5 blisters of 10 — 1.7 mL cartridges (NDC 66312-176-16). Store at controlled room temperature, below 25°C (77°F). Protect from light. Do not permit to freeze. BOXES : For protection from light, retain in box until time of use. Once opened, the box should be reclosed by closing the end flap. Do not use if color is pinkish or darker than slightly yellow or if it contains a precipitate. STERILIZATION : STORAGE AND TECHNICAL PROCEDURES Cartridges should not be autoclaved, because the closures employed cannot withstand autoclaving temperatures and pressures. If chemical disinfection of anesthetic cartridges is desired, either isopropyl alcohol (91%) or 70% ethyl alcohol is recommended. Many commercially available brands of rubbing alcohol, as well as solutions of ethyl alcohol not of U.S.P grade, contain denaturants that are injurious to rubber and, therefore, are not to be used. It is recommended that chemical disinfection be accomplished just prior to use by wiping the cartridge cap thoroughly with a pledge of cotton that has been moistened with recommended alcohol. Certain metallic ions (mercury, zinc, copper, etc.) have been related to swelling and edema after local anesthesia in dentistry. Therefore, chemical disinfectants containing or releasing these ions are not recommended. Antirust tablets usually contain sodium nitrite or some similar agents that may be capable of releasing metal ions. Because of this, aluminium sealed cartridges should not be kept in such solutions. Quaternary ammonium salts, such as benzalkonium chloride, are electrolytically incompatible with aluminium. Cartridges of 2% Xylocaine DENTAL are sealed with aluminium caps and therefore should not be immersed in any solution containing these salts. To avoid leakage of solutions during injection, be sure to penetrate the center of the rubber diaphragm when loading the syringe. An off-center penetration produces an oval shaped puncture that allows leakage around the needle.Other causes of leakage and breakage include badly worn syringes, aspirating syringes with bent harpoons, the use of syringes not designed to take 1.7 mL cartridges, and inadvertent freezing. Cracking of glass cartridges is most often the result of an attempt to use a cartridge with an extruded plunger. An extruded plunger loses its lubrication and can be forced back into the cartridge only with difficulty. Cartridges with extruded plungers should be discarded. Store at controlled room temperature, below 25°C (77°F). Manufactured for: DENTSPLY Pharmaceutical by Novocol Pharmaceutical of Canada, Inc. Cambridge, Ontario, Canada N1R 6X3. Revised:. Dec 2011

Indications & Dosage

INDICATIONS Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) Injections are indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks, when the accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are observed. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Table 1 (Recommended Dosages) summarizes the recommended volumes and concentrations of Xylocaine (lidocaine) Injection for various types of anesthetic procedures. The dosages suggested in this table are for normal healthy adults and refer to the use of epinephrine-free solutions. When larger volumes are required, only solutions containing epinephrine should be used except in those cases where vasopressor drugs may be contraindicated. There have been adverse event reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures. Xylocaine (lidocaine) is not approved for this use (see WARNINGS). These recommended doses serve only as a guide to the amount of anesthetic required for most routine procedures. The actual volumes and concentrations to be used depend on a number of factors such as type and extent of surgical procedure, depth of anesthesia and degree of muscular relaxation required, duration of anesthesia required, and the physical condition of the patient. In all cases the lowest concentration and smallest dose that will produce the desired result should be given. Dosages should be reduced for children and for the elderly and debilitated patients and patients with cardiac and/or liver disease. The onset of anesthesia, the duration of anesthesia and the degree of muscular relaxation are proportional to the volume and concentration (ie, total dose) of local anesthetic used. Thus, an increase in volume and concentration of Xylocaine (lidocaine) Injection will decrease the onset of anesthesia, prolong the duration of anesthesia, provide a greater degree of muscular relaxation and increase the segmental spread of anesthesia. However, increasing the volume and concentration of Xylocaine (lidocaine) Injection may result in a more profound fall in blood pressure when used in epidural anesthesia. Although the incidence of side effects with lidocaine HCl is quite low, caution should be exercised when employing large volumes and concentrations, since the incidence of side effects is directly proportional to the total dose of local anesthetic agent injected. For intravenous regional anesthesia, only the 50 mL single dose vial containing Xylocaine (lidocaine HCl) 0.5% Injection should be used. Epidural Anesthesia For epidural anesthesia, only the following dosage forms Xylocaine (lidocaine) Injection are recommended: 1% without epinephrine 10 mL Polyamp DuoFit™ 1% without epinephrine 30 mL single dose solutions 1% with epinephrine 30 mL single dose solutions 1:200,000 1.5% without epinephrine 10 mL Polyamp DuoFit™ 1.5% without epinephrine 20 mL Polyamp DuoFit™ 1.5% with epinephrine 30 mL ampules, 30 mL single dose solutions 1:200,000 2% without epinephrine 10 mL Polyamp DuoFit™ 2% with epinephrine 20 mL ampules, 20 mL single dose solutions 1:200,000 Although these solutions are intended specifically for epidural anesthesia, they may also be used for infiltration and peripheral nerve block, provided they are employed as single dose units. These solutions contain no bacteriostatic agent. In epidural anesthesia, the dosage varies with the number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (generally 2–3 mL of the indicated concentration per dermatome). Caudal and Lumbar Epidural Block As a precaution against the adverse experience sometimes observed following unintentional penetration of the subarachnoid space, a test dose such as 2 to 3 mL of 1.5% lidocaine HCl should be administered at least 5 minutes prior to injecting the total volume required for a lumbar or caudal epidural block. The test dose should be repeated if the patient is moved in a manner that may have displaced the catheter. Epinephrine, if contained in the test dose (10 to 15 mcg have been suggested), may serve as a warning of unintentional intravascular injection. If injected into a blood vessel, this amount of epinephrine is likely to produce a transient “epinephrine response” within 45 seconds, consisting of an increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, circumoral pallor, palpitations and nervousness in the unsedated patient. The sedated patient may exhibit only a pulse rate increase of 20 or more beats per minute for 15 or more seconds. Patients on beta blockers may not manifest changes in heart rate, but blood pressure monitoring can detect an evanescent rise in systolic blood pressure. Adequate time should be allowed for onset of anesthesia after administration of each test dose. The rapid injection of a large volume of Xylocaine (lidocaine) Injection through the catheter should be avoided, and, when feasible, fractional doses should be administered. In the event of the known injection of a large volume of local anesthetic solution into the subarachnoid space, after suitable resuscitation and if the catheter is in place, consider attempting the recovery of drug by draining a moderate amount of cerebrospinal fluid (such as 10 mL) through the epidural catheter. Maximum Recommended Dosages Adults For normal healthy adults, the individual maximum recommended dose of lidocaine HCl with epinephrine should not exceed 7 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb) of body weight, and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose not exceed 500 mg. When used without epinephrine the maximum individual dose should not exceed 4.5 mg/kg (2 mg/lb) of body weight, and in general it is recommended that the maximum total dose does not exceed 300 mg. For continuous epidural or caudal anesthesia, the maximum recommended dosage should not be administered at intervals of less than 90 minutes. When continuous lumbar or caudal epidural anesthesia is used for non-obstetrical procedures, more drug may be administered if required to produce adequate anesthesia. The maximum recommended dose per 90 minute period of lidocaine hydrochloride for paracervical block in obstetrical patients and non-obstetrical patients is 200 mg total. One half of the total dose is usually administered to each side. Inject slowly, five minutes between sides. (See also discussion of paracervical block in PRECAUTIONS.) For intravenous regional anesthesia, the dose administered should not exceed 4mg/kg in adults. Children It is difficult to recommend a maximum dose of any drug for children, since this varies as a function of age and weight. For children over 3 years of age who have a normal lean body mass and normal body development, the maximum dose is determined by the child's age and weight. For example, in a child of 5 years weighing 50 lbs the dose of lidocaine HCl should not exceed 75–100 mg (1.5 to 2 mg/lb). The use of even more dilute solutions (ie, 0.25 to 0.5%) and total dosages not to exceed 3 mg/kg (1.4 mg/lb) are recommended for induction of intravenous regional anesthesia in children. In order to guard against systemic toxicity, the lowest effective concentration and lowest effective dose should be used at all times. In some cases it will be necessary to dilute available concentrations with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in order to obtain the required final concentration. NOTE: Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever the solution and container permit. The Injection is not to be used if its color is pinkish or darker than slightly yellow or if it contains a precipitate. Table 1: Recommended Dosages Procedure Xylocaine (lidocaine hydrochloride) Injection (without epinephrine) Conc (%) Vol (mL) Total Dose (mg) Infiltration Percutaneous 0.5 or 1 1-60 5-300 Intravenous regional 0.5 10-60 50-300 Peripheral Nerve Blocks, eg Brachial 1.5 15-20 225-300 Dental 2 1-5 20-100 Intercostal 1 3 30 Paravertebral 1 3-5 30-50 Pudendal (each side) 1 10 100 Paracervical Obstetrical analgesia (each side) 1 10 100 Sympathetic Nerve Blocks, eg, Cervical (stellate ganglion) 1 5 50 Lumbar 1 5-10 50-100 Central Neural Blocks Epidural* Thoracic 1 20-30 200-300 Lumbar Analgesia 1 25-30 250-300 Anesthesia 1.5 15-20 225-300 Caudal 2 10-15 200-300 Obstetrical analgesia 1 20-30 200-300 Surgical anesthesia 1.5 15-20 225-300 *Dose determined by number of dermatomes to be anesthetized (2–3 mL/dermatome). THE ABOVE SUGGESTED CONCENTRATIONS AND VOLUMES SERVE ONLY AS A GUIDE. OTHER VOLUMES AND CONCENTRATIONS MAY BE USED PROVIDED THE TOTAL MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED DOSE IS NOT EXCEEDED. Sterilization, Storage and Technical Procedures Disinfecting agents containing heavy metals, which cause release of respective ions (mercury, zinc, copper, etc) should not be used for skin or mucous membrane disinfection as they have been related to incidents of swelling and edema. When chemical disinfection of multi-dose vials is desired, either isopropyl alcohol (91%) or ethyl alcohol (70%) is recommended. Many commercially available brands of rubbing alcohol, as well as solutions of ethyl alcohol not of USP grade, contain denaturants which are injurious to rubber and therefore are not to be used. Dosage forms listed as Xylocaine (lidocaine) -MPF indicate single dose solutions that are Methyl Paraben Free (MPF). HOW SUPPLIED Xylocaine-MPF Xylocaine Ampules (mL) Polyamp DuoFit™(mL) Single Dose Vials (mL) Multiple Dose Vials (mL) Xylocaine (lidocaine HCI) Concentration Epinephrine Dilution (if present) 2 5 10 20 30 10 20 2 5 10 20 30 50 10 20 50 0.5% X X 0.5% 1:200,000 X 1% X X X X X X X X X X 1% 1:100,000 X X X 1% 1:200,000 X X X 1.5% X X X 1.5% 1:200,000 X X X X X X X 2% X X X X X X 2% 1:100,000 2% 1:200,000 X X X All solutions should be stored at room temperature, approximately 25°C (77°F). Protect from light. Manufactured for: APP Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Schaumburg, IL 60173. Revised: February 2010

Medication Guide

PATIENT INFORMATION The patient should be informed of the possibility of temporary loss of sensation and muscle function following infiltration or nerve block injections. The patient should be advised to to exert caution to avoid inadvertent trauma to the lips, tongue, cheek mucosae or soft palate when these structures are anesthetized. The ingestion of food should therefore be postponed until normal function returns. The patient should be advised to consult the dentist if anesthesia persists or if a rash develops.

Medication Guide

PATIENT INFORMATION When appropriate, patients should be informed in advance that they may experience temporary loss of sensation and motor activity, usually in the lower half of the body, following proper administration of epidural anesthesia.

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE Acute emergencies from local anesthetics are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use of local anesthetics or to unintended subarachnoid injection of local anesthetic solution (See ADVERSE REACTIONS, WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS). Management Of Local Anesthetic Emergencies The first consideration is prevention, best accomplished by careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs and the patient's state of consciousness after each local anesthetic injection. At the first sign of change, oxygen should be administered. The first step in the management of convulsions consists of immediate attention to the maintenance of a patent airway and assisted or controlled ventilation with oxygen and a delivery system capable of permitting immediate positive airway pressure by mask. Immediately after the institution of these ventilatory measures, the adequacy of the circulation should be evaluated, keeping in mind that drugs used to treat convulsions sometimes depress the circulation when administered intravenously. Should convulsions persist despite adequate respiratory support, and if the status of the circulation permits, small increments of an ultra-short acting barbiturate (such as thiopental or thiamylal) or a benzodiazepine (such as diazepam) may be administered intravenously. The clinician should be familiar, prior to use of local anesthetics, with these anticonvulsant drugs. Supportive treatment of clrculatory depression may require administration of intravenous fluids and, when appropriate, a vasopressor as directed by the clinical situation (e.g., ephedrine). If not treated immediately, both convulsions and cardiovascular depression can result in hypoxia, acidosis, bradycardia, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. If cardiac arrest should occur, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures should be instituted. Endotracheal intubation, employing drugs and techniques familiar to the clinician, may be indicated, after initial administration of oxygen by mask, if difficulty is encountered in the maintenance of a patent airway or if prolonged ventilatory support (assisted or controlled) is indicated. Dialysis is of negligible value in the treatment of acute overdosage with lidocaine. The intravenous LD50 of lidocaine HCl in female mice is 26 (21-31) mg/kg and the subcutaneous LD50 is 264 (203-304) mg /kg. CONTRAINDICATIONS 2% Xylocaine DENTAL is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type or to any components of the injectable formulations.

Overdosage & Contraindications

OVERDOSE Acute emergencies from local anesthetics are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use of local anesthetics or to unintended subarachnoid injection of local anesthetic solution (see ADVERSE REACTIONS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS). Management of Local Anesthetic Emergencies The first consideration is prevention best accomplished by careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs and the patient's consciousness after each local anesthetic injection. At the first sign of change, oxygen should be administered. The first step in the management of convulsions, as well as underventilation or apnea due to unintended subarachnoid injection of drug solution, consists of immediate attention to the maintenance of a patent airway and assisted or controlled ventilation with oxygen and a delivery system capable of permitting immediate positive airway pressure by mask. Immediately after the institution of these ventilatory measures, the adequacy of the circulation should be evaluated, keeping in mind that drugs used to treat convulsions sometimes depress the circulation when administered intravenously. Should convulsions persist despite adequate respiratory support, and if the status of the circulation permits, small increments of an ultra-short acting barbiturate (such as thiopental or thiamylal) or a benzodiazepine (such as diazepam) may be administered intravenously. The clinician should be familiar, prior to the use of local anesthetics, with these anticonvulsant drugs. Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require administration of intravenous fluids and, when appropriate, a vasopressor as directed by the clinical situation (eg, ephedrine). If not treated immediately, both convulsions and cardiovascular depression can result in hypoxia, acidosis, bradycardia, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Underventilation or apnea due to unintentional subarachnoid injection of local anesthetic solution may produce these same signs and also lead to cardiac arrest if ventilatory support is not instituted. If cardiac arrest should occur, standard cardiopulmonary resuscitative measures should be instituted. Endotracheal intubation, employing drugs and techniques familiar to the clinician, may be indicated, after initial administration of oxygen by mask, if difficulty is encountered in the maintenance of a patent airway or if prolonged ventilatory support (assisted or controlled) is indicated. Dialysis is of negligible value in the treatment of acute overdosage with lidocaine HCl. The oral LD50 of lidocaine HCl in non-fasted female rats is 459 (346–773) mg/kg (as the salt) and 214 (159–324) mg/kg (as the salt) in fasted female rats. CONTRAINDICATIONS Lidocaine HCl is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type.

Side Effects & Drug Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS Adverse experiences following the administration of lidocaine are similar in nature to those observed with other amide-type local anesthetic agents. These adverse experiences are, in general, dose-related and may result from high plasma levels (which may be caused by excessive dosage, rapid absorption, unintended intravascular injection or slow metabolic degradation), injection technique, volume of injection, hypersensitivity, idiosyncrasy or diminished tolerance on the part of the patient. Serious adverse experiences are generally systemic in nature. The following types are those most commonly reported : Central Nervous System CNS manifestations are excitatory and/or depressant and may be characterized by lightheadedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision, vomiting, sensations of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory depression and arrest. The excitatory manifestations may be very brief or may not occur at all, in which case the first manifestation of toxicity may be drowsiness merging into unconsciousness and respiratory arrest. Drowsiness following the administration of lidocaine is usually an early sign of a high blood level of the drug and may occur as a consequence of rapid absorption. Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular manifestations in response to lidocaine are usually depressant and are characterized by bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse, which may lead to cardiac arrest. In addition, the beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulating action of epinephrine may lead to excitatory cardiovascular responses, such as tachycardia, palpitations, and hypertension. Signs and symptoms of depressed cardiovascular function may commonly result from a vasovagal reaction, particularly if the patient is in an upright position. Less commonly, they may result from a direct effect of the drug. Failure to recognize the premonitory signs such as sweating, a feeling of faintness, changes in pulse or sensorium may result in progressive cerebral hypoxia and seizure or serious cardiovascular catastrophe. Management consists of placing the patient in the recumbent position and ventilation with oxygen. Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require the administration of intravenous fluids and, when appropriate, a vasopressor (e.g, ephedrine) as directed by the clinical situation. Allergic Reactions Allergic reactions are characterized by cutaneous lesions, urticaria, edema , anaphylactoid reactions , or dyspnea due to bronchoconstriction. Allergic reactions as a result of sensitivity to lidocaine are extremely rare and, if they occur, should be managed by conventional means. The detection of sensitivity by skin testing is of doubtful value. Neurologic Reactions The incidences of adverse reactions (e.g., persistent neurologic deficit) associated with the use of local anesthetics may be related to the technique employed, the total dose of local anesthetic administered, the particular drug used, the route of administration, and the physical condition of the patient. Persistent paresthesias of the lips, tongue, and oral tissues have been reported with the use of lidocaine, with slow, incomplete, or no recovery. These post-marketing events have been reported chiefly following nerve blocks in the mandible and have involved the trigeminal nerve and its branches. DRUG INTERACTIONS Clinically Significant Drug Interactions The administration of local anesthetic solutions containing epinephrine or norepinephrine to patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants or phenothiazines may produce severe prolonged hypotension or hypertension. Concurrent use of these agents should generally be avoided. In situations when concurrent therapy is necessary, careful patient monitoring is essential. Concurrent administration of vasopressor drugs and ergot-type oxytocic drugs may cause severe, persistent hypertension or cerebrovascular accidents. As the 2% Xylocaine DENTAL solutions both contain a vasoconstrictor (epinephrine), concurrent use of either with a Beta-adrenergic blocking agent (propranolol, timolol, etc.) may result in dosedependent hypertension and bradycardia with possible heart block. Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions The intramuscular injection of lidocaine may result in an increase in creatine phosphokinase levels. Thus, the use of this enzyme determination, without isoenzyme separation, as a diagnostic test for the presence of acute myocardial infarction may be compromised by the intramuscular injection of lidocaine.

Side Effects & Drug Interactions

SIDE EFFECTS Systemic Adverse experiences following the administration of lidocaine HCl are similar in nature to those observed with other amide local anesthetic agents. These adverse experiences are, in general, dose-related and may result from high plasma levels caused by excessive dosage, rapid absorption or inadvertent intravascular injection, or may result from a hypersensitivity, idiosyncrasy or diminished tolerance on the part of the patient. Serious adverse experiences are generally systemic in nature. The following types are those most commonly reported: Central Nervous System CNS manifestations are excitatory and/or depressant and may be characterized by lightheadedness, nervousness, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision, vomiting, sensations of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory depression and arrest. The excitatory manifestations may be very brief or may not occur at all, in which case the first manifestation of toxicity may be drowsiness merging into unconsciousness and respiratory arrest. Drowsiness following the administration of lidocaine HCl is usually an early sign of a high blood level of the drug and may occur as a consequence of rapid absorption. Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular manifestations are usually depressant and are characterized by bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiovascular collapse, which may lead to cardiac arrest. Allergic Allergic reactions are characterized by cutaneous lesions, urticaria, edema or anaphylactoid reactions. Allergic reactions may occur as a result of sensitivity either to local anesthetic agents or to the methylparaben used as a preservative in the multiple dose vials. Allergic reactions as result of sensitivity to lidocaine HCl are extremely rare and, if they occur, should be managed by conventional means. The detection of sensitivity by skin testing is of doubtful value. Neurologic The incidences of adverse reactions associated with the use of local anesthetics may be related to the total dose of local anesthetic administered and are also dependent upon the particular drug used, the route of administration and the physical status of the patient. In a prospective review of 10,440 patients who received lidocaine HCl for spinal anesthesia, the incidences of adverse reactions were reported to be about 3 percent each for positional headaches, hypotension and backache; 2 percent for shivering; and less than 1 percent each for peripheral nerve symptoms, nausea, respiratory inadequacy and double vision. Many of these observations may be related to local anesthetic techniques, with or without a contribution from the local anesthetic. In the practice of caudal or lumbar epidural block, occasional unintentional penetration of the subarachnoid space by the catheter may occur. Subsequent adverse effects may depend partially on the amount of drug administered subdurally. These may include spinal block of varying magnitude (including total spinal block), hypotension secondary to spinal block, loss of bladder and bowel control, and loss of perineal sensation and sexual function. Persistent motor, sensory and/or autonomic (sphincter control) deficit of some lower spinal segments with slow recovery (several months) or incomplete recovery have been reported in rare instances when caudal or lumbar epidural block has been attempted. Backache and headache have also been noted following use of these anesthetic procedures. There have been reported cases of permanent injury to extraocular muscles requiring surgical repair following retrobulbar administration. DRUG INTERACTIONS Clinically Significant Drug Interactions The administration of local anesthetic solutions containing epinephrine or norepinephrine to patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants may produce severe, prolonged hypertension. Phenothiazines and butyrophenones may reduce or reverse the pressor effect of epinephrine. Concurrent use of these agents should generally be avoided. In situations when concurrent therapy is necessary, careful patient monitoring is essential. Concurrent administration of vasopressor drugs (for the treatment of hypotension related to obstetric blocks) and ergot-type oxytocic drugs may cause severe, persistent hypertension or cerebrovascular accidents. Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions The intramuscular injection of lidocaine HCl may result in an increase in creatine phosphokinase levels. Thus, the use of this enzyme determination, without isoenzyme separation, as a diagnostic test for the presence of acute myocardial infarction may be compromised by the intramuscular injection of lidocaine HCl.

Warnings & Precautions

WARNINGS DENTAL PRACTITIONERS WHO EMPLOY LOCAL ANESTHETIC AGENTS SHOULD BE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF EMERGENCIES WHICH MAY ARISE FROM THEIR USE. RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT, OXYGEN AND OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE FOR IMMEDIATE USE. To minimize the likelihood of intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. If blood is aspirated, the needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not assure that intravascular injection will be avoided. Local anesthetic procedures should be used with caution when there is inflammation and/or sepsis in the region of the proposed injection. 2% Xylocaine DENTAL solutions contain potassium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergictype reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people. 2% Xylocaine DENTAL solution, along with other local anesthetics, is capable of producing methemoglobinemia. The clinical signs of methemoglobinemia are cyanosis of the nail beds and lips, fatigue and weakness. If methemoglobinemia does not respond to administration of oxygen, administration of methylene blue intravenously 1-2 mg/kg body weight over a 5 minute period is recommended. The American Heart Association has made the following recommendations regarding the use of local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors in patients with ischemic heart disease: “Vasoconstrictor agents should be used in local anesthesia solutions during dental practice only when it is clear that the procedure will be shortened or the analgesia rendered more profound. When a vasoconstrictor is indicated, extreme care should be taken to avoid intravascular injection. The minimum possible amount of vasoconstrictor should be used.” (Kaplan, EL, editor: Cardiovascular disease in dental practice, Dallas 1986, American Heart Association.) PRECAUTIONS General The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions and readiness for emergencies. Consult standard textbooks for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Repeated doses of lidocaine may cause significant increases in blood levels with each repeated dose due to slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites. Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients, acutely ill patients, and children should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical condition. If sedatives are employed to reduce patient apprehension, reduced doses should be used since local anesthetic agents, like sedatives, are central nervous system depressants which in combination may have an additive effect. Young children should be given minimal doses of each agent. Lidocaine should be used with caution in patients with severe shock or heart block. Lidocaine should also be used with caution in patients with impaired cardiovascular function. Local anesthetic solutions containing a vasoconstrictor should be used with caution in areas of the body supplied by end arteries or having otherwise compromised blood supply. Patients with peripheral vascular disease and those with hypertensive vascular disease may exhibit exaggerated vasoconstrictor response. Ischemic injury ( such as exfoliating or ulcerating lesions) or necrosis may result. Preparations containing a vasoconstrictor should be used with caution in patients during or following the administration of potent general anesthetic agents, since cardiac arrhythmias may occur under such conditions. Cardiovascular and respiratory (adequacy of ventilation) vital signs and the patient's state of consciousness should be monitored after each local anesthetic injection. Restlessness, anxiety tinnitus, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, depression or drowsiness should alert the practitioner to the possibility of central nervous system toxicity. Signs and symptoms of depressed cardiovascular function may commonly result from a vasovagal reaction, particularly if the patient is in an upright position : placing the patient in the recumbent position is recommended when an adverse response is noted after injection of a local anesthetic (See ADVERSE REACTIONS - Cardiovascular System.) Vasovagal reactions may elicit a range of clinical manifestations, from prodrome signs of pre-syncope (e.g., lightheadedness, pallor, nausea, sweating, visual disturbances, weakness) to brief loss of consciousness (i.e., syncope). Lidocaine should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease, since amide-type local anesthetics are metabolized by the liver. Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations. Many drugs used during the conduct of anesthesia are considered potential triggering agents for familial malignant hyperthermia. Since it is not known whether amide-type local anesthetics may trigger this reaction, and since the need for supplemental general anesthesia cannot be predicted in advance, it is suggested that a standard protocol for management should be available. Early unexplained signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, labile blood pressure and metabolic acidosis may precede temperature elevation. Successful outcome is dependent on early diagnosis, prompt discontinuance of the suspected triggering agent (s) and prompt treatment, including oxygen therapy, dantrolene (consult dantrolene sodium intravenous package insert before using) and other supportive measures. Lidocaine should be used with caution in persons with known drug sensitivities. Patients allergic to para-aminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc.) have not shown cross sensitivity to lidocaine. Use In The Head And Neck Area Small doses of local anesthetics injected into the head and neck area, including retrobulbar, dental and stellate ganglion blocks, may produce adverse reactions similar to systemic toxicity seen with unintentional intravascular injections of larger doses. Confusion, convulsions, respiratony depression and/or respiratory arrest, and cardiovascular stimulation or depression have been reported. These reactions may be due to intra-arterial injection of the local anesthetic with retrograde flow to the cerebral circulation. Patients receiving these blocks should have their circulation and respiration monitored and be constantly observed. Resuscitative equipment and personnel for treating adverse reactions should be immediately available. Dosage recommendations should not be exceeded (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility Studies of lidocaine in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential or the effect on fertility have not been conducted. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category B Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at doses up to 6.6 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus caused by lidocaine. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. General consideration should be given to this fact before administering lidocaine to women of childbearing potential, especially during early pregnancy when maximum organogenesis takes place. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when lidocaine is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Dosages in pediatric population should be reduced, commensurate with age, body weight and physical condition (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Warnings & Precautions

WARNINGS XYLOCAINE (lidocaine) INJECTIONS FOR INFILTRATION AND NERVE BLOCK SHOULD BE EMPLOYED ONLY BY CLINICIANS WHO ARE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY AND OTHER ACUTE EMERGENCIES THAT MIGHT ARISE FROM THE BLOCK TO BE EMPLOYED AND THEN ONLY AFTER ENSURING THE IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY OF OXYGEN, OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS, CARDIOPULMONARY EQUIPMENT AND THE PERSONNEL NEEDED FOR PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC REACTIONS AND RELATED EMERGENCIES. (See also ADVERSE REACTIONS and PRECAUTIONS.) DELAY IN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DOSE-RELATED TOXICITY, UNDERVENTILATION FROM ANY CAUSE AND/OR ALTERED SENSITIVITY MAY LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACIDOSIS, CARDIAC ARREST AND, POSSIBLY, DEATH. Intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, and there have been post-marketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions. The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of gleno-humeral chondrolysis have been described in pediatric and adult patients following intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics with and without epinephrine for periods of 48 to 72 hours. There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are not associated with these findings. The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2nd month after surgery. Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement. To avoid intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. The needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not guarantee that intravascular injection has been avoided. Local anesthetic solutions containing antimicrobial preservatives (eg, methylparaben) should not be used for epidural or spinal anesthesia because the safety of these agents has not been established with regard to intrathecal injection, either intentional or accidental. Xylocaine (lidocaine) with epinephrine solutions contain sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic people. PRECAUTIONS General The safety and effectiveness of lidocaine HCl depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.) The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Syringe aspirations should also be performed before and during each supplemental injection when using indwelling catheter techniques. During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and that the patient be monitored for central nervous system toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity, as well as for signs of unintended intrathecal administration, before proceeding. When clinical conditions permit, consideration should be given to employing local anesthetic solutions that contain epinephrine for the test dose because circulatory changes compatible with epinephrine may also serve as a warning sign of unintended intravascular injection. An intravascular injection is still possible even if aspirations for blood are negative. Repeated doses of lidocaine HCl may cause significant increases in blood levels with each repeated dose because of slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites. Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients, acutely ill patients, and children should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical condition. Lidocaine HCl should also be used with caution in patients with severe shock or heart block. Lumbar and caudal epidural anesthesia should be used with extreme caution in persons with the following conditions: existing neurological disease, spinal deformities, septicemia, and severe hypertension. Local anesthetic solutions containing a vasoconstrictor should be used cautiously and in carefully circumscribed quantities in areas of the body supplied by end arteries or having otherwise compromised blood supply. Patients with peripheral vascular disease and those with hypertensive vascular disease may exhibit exaggerated vasoconstrictor response. Ischemic injury or necrosis may result. Preparations containing a vasoconstrictor should be used with caution in patients during or following the administration of potent general anesthetic agents, since cardiac arrhythmias may occur under such conditions. Careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory (adequacy of ventilation) vital signs and the patient's state ofshould be accomplished after each local anesthetic injection. It should be kept in mind at such times that restlessness, anxiety, tinnitus, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, depression or drowsiness may be early warning signs of central nervous system toxicity. Since amide-type local anesthetics are metabolized by the liver, Xylocaine (lidocaine) Injection should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease. Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations. Xylocaine (lidocaine) Injection should also be used with caution in patients with impaired cardiovascular function since they may be less able to compensate for functional changes associated with the prolongation of A-V conduction produced by these drugs. Many drugs used during the conduct of anesthesia are considered potential triggering agents for familial malignant hyperthermia. Since it is not known whether amide-type local anesthetics may trigger this reaction and since the need for supplemental general anesthesia cannot be predicted in advance, it is suggested that a standard protocol for the management of malignant hyperthermia should be available. Early unexplained signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, labile blood pressure and metabolic acidosis may precede temperature elevation. Successful outcome is dependent on early diagnosis, prompt discontinuance of the suspect triggering agent(s) and institution of treatment, including oxygen therapy, indicated supportive measures and dantrolene (consult dantrolene sodium intravenous package insert before using). Proper tourniquet technique, as described in publications and standard textbooks, is essential in the performance of intravenous regional anesthesia. Solutions containing epinephrine or other vasoconstrictors should not be used for this technique. Lidocaine HCl should be used with caution in persons with known drug sensitivities. Patients allergic to para-aminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc) have not shown cross-sensitivity to lidocaine HCl. Use in the Head and Neck Area Small doses of local anesthetics injected into the head and neck area, including retrobulbar, dental and stellate ganglion blocks, may produce adverse reactions similar to systemic toxicity seen with unintentional intravascular injections of larger doses. Confusion, convulsions, respiratory depression and/or respiratory arrest, and cardiovascular stimulation or depression have been reported. These reactions may be due to intra-arterial injection of the local anesthetic with retrograde flow to the cerebral circulation. Patients receiving these blocks should have their circulation and respiration monitored and be constantly observed. Resuscitative equipment and personnel for treating adverse reactions should be immediately available. Dosage recommendations should not be exceeded. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Studies of lidocaine HCl in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential or the effect on fertility have not been conducted. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category B Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at doses up to 6.6 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus caused by lidocaine HCl. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. General consideration should be given to this fact before administering lidocaine HCl to women of childbearing potential, especially during early pregnancy when maximum organogenesis takes place. Labor and Delivery Local anesthetics rapidly cross the placenta and when used for epidural, paracervical, pudendal or caudal block anesthesia, can cause varying degrees of maternal, fetal and neonatal toxicity. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics.) The potential for toxicity depends upon the procedure performed, the type and amount of drug used, and the technique of drug administration. Adverse reactions in the parturient, fetus and neonate involve alterations of the central nervous system, peripheral vascular tone and cardiac function. Maternal hypotension has resulted from regional anesthesia. Local anesthetics produce vasodilation by blocking sympathetic nerves. Elevating the patient'sgs and positioning her on her left side will help prevent decreases in blood pressure. The fetal heart rate also should be monitored continuously, and electronic fetal monitoring is highly advisable. Epidural, spinal, paracervical, or pudendal anesthesia may alter the forces of parturition through changes in uterine contractility or maternal expulsive efforts. In one study, paracervical block anesthesia was associated with a decrease in the mean duration of first stage labor and facilitation of cervical dilation. However, spinal and epidural anesthesia have also been reported to prolong the second stage of labor by removing the parturient's interfering with motor function. The use of obstetrical anesthesia may increase the need for forceps assistance. The use of some local anesthetic drug products during labor and delivery may be followed by diminished muscle strength and tone for the first day or two of life. The long-term significance of these observations is unknown. Fetal bradycardia may occur in 20 to 30 percent of patients receiving paracervical nerve block anesthesia with the amide-type local anesthetics and may be associated with fetal acidosis. Fetal heart rate should always be monitored during paracervical anesthesia. The physician should weigh the possible advantages against risks when considering a paracervical block in prematurity, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal distress. Careful adherence to recommended dosage is of the utmost importance in obstetrical paracervical block. Failure to achieve adequate analgesia with recommended doses should arouse suspicion of intravascular or fetal intracranial injection. Cases compatible with unintended fetal intracranial injection of local anesthetic solution have been reported following intended paracervical or pudendal block or both. Babies so affected present with unexplained neonatal depression at birth, which correlates with high local anesthetic serum levels, and often manifest seizures within six hours. Prompt use of supportive measures combined with forced urinary excretion of the local anesthetic has been used successfully to manage this complication. Case reports of maternal convulsions and cardiovascular collapse following use of some local anesthetics for paracervical block in early pregnancy (as anesthesia for elective abortion) suggest that systemic absorption under these circumstances may be rapid. The recommended maximum dose of each drug should not be exceeded. Injection should be made slowly and with frequent aspiration. Allow a 5-minute interval between sides. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when lidocaine HCl is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Dosages in children should be reduced, commensurate with age, body weight and physical condition. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.

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