About Laryngeal Carcinoma (Larynx Cancer)
Learn about the disease, illness and/or condition Laryngeal Carcinoma (Larynx Cancer) including: symptoms, causes, treatments, contraindications and conditions at ClusterMed.info.
Laryngeal Carcinoma (Larynx Cancer)
|Laryngeal Carcinoma (Larynx Cancer)|
Laryngeal Carcinoma (Larynx Cancer) Information
Throat cancer (larynx cancer) facts*
*Throat cancer (larynx cancer) facts medically edited by: Melissa Conrad Stoppler, MD
Are there home remedies for throat (larynx) cancer?
There are no home remedies that can cure throat cancers. However, there are home remedies that might reduce some of the symptoms in some patients. They are not medically recommended as initial or first treatments but like most home remedies may reduce some symptoms in certain patients. They are as follows:
How do health care professionals determine throat cancer staging?
Throat cancer staging is determined by a TNM staging system. The system was developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and is presented below.AJCC Cancer Staging
How do health care professionals diagnose throat cancer?
The person's individual history (especially the presence of potential risk factors) and physical examination may provide a physician with enough suspicious information that the physician will consider throat cancer as a possible diagnosis. Consequently, the physician may strongly suggest doing additional tests to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of throat cancer. Although imaging tests such as CT, MRI, PET scan, and others like chest X-rays, laryngoscopy, and barium swallows provide very useful information about extent and location of the cancer, the definitive diagnosis of throat cancer is made by biopsy of the tumor. Biopsy may be done by surgical incision in the neck, fine needle aspiration of the tumor, or by an endoscopic biopsy.
Is it possible to prevent throat cancer?
Although general throat cancer screening is not available, those individuals that are at higher risk for throat cancer may need to see their physicians if any signs and symptoms raise suspicion of throat cancer. Consequently, those who are at increased risk such as individuals who smoke or who may have been exposed to HPV, asbestos, nickel, or sulfuric acid fumes are at higher risk. Avoiding such risky situations can reduce the risk of throat cancer but there is no guarantee that it can be prevented. However, one excellent way to reduce the cancer risk is to have young men and women be vaccinated with the HPV vaccine.
What are the risk factors for throat cancer?
Some of the risk factors for throat cancer are related to lifestyle. For example, individuals can increase the risk of such cancers by smoking or using other tobacco products, chewing betel nuts (a common practice by South Asians), drinking excess alcohol, and consuming insufficient vitamin A. Exposure to asbestos, poor dental hygiene, and especially exposure to HPV are also risk factors. HPV exposure is significant because about 50% to 90% of squamous cell carcinomas (squamous cell cancer), the most common type of throat cancers, have been linked to HPV infections that can be acquired with oral sex. In addition, being male and/or having an African-American heritage also increases risk.
What are the symptoms and signs of throat cancer?
The symptoms and signs of throat cancer often vary from person to person. The most common signs and symptoms of throat cancer are nonspecific. Not every patient will exhibit each sign and symptom, but each patient will usually have at least one or two of the following:
What are the types of larynx (throat) cancer?
The types of larynx (throat) cancers are as follows:
What causes throat cancer?
Although it is not clear exactly what causes throat cancers, the cancerous cells develop when genetic mutations allow the cells to grow uncontrollably to form tumors (masses of cancer cells) that may metastasize (spread) to other areas in the body. Some of the factors that can lead to genetic mutations in the cells of the throat include cigarette smoking, infections with the human papillomavirus (HPV), and exposure to toxic substances like asbestos or large quantities of alcohol.
What is the prognosis for patients with throat cancer?
The prognosis or outcome for patients with throat cancer varies with the stage and location of the cancer. Most prognostic indicators are based on a 5-year relative survival rate that varies with the type of cancer and its stage. The best survival is in cancer of the glottis (90%) and worst is in cancer of the hypopharynx (53%), both beginning at stage I over a 5-year period. Unfortunately, in all individuals with throat cancer, the 5-year survival rate declines as the stages progress from 1 to IV. Consequently, the earlier the cancer is diagnosed and treated the better the potential outcome.
What is the treatment for throat cancer?
The treatment for throat cancer depends upon the extent and seriousness of the disease. As stated by the MD Anderson Cancer Center and others, treatment is tailored to the individual to provide him or her with the best chance for a successful outcome. Treatment strives to preserve the patient's ability to eat, speak, and live a normal healthy life. Treatment plans for throat cancers usually include one or more of the following techniques: surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, proton therapy, targeted therapies, and possibly participation in throat cancer clinical trials. Brief descriptions of the major components for throat cancer therapy are as follows:
What is throat (larynx) cancer?
Throat cancer (laryngeal cancer) is a general term that usually refers to cancer of the pharynx and/or larynx (voice box). Regions included when considering throat cancer include the pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx [cancers that occur in the tissues of the throat adjacent to the larynx], glottis, supraglottis, and subglottis); about half of throat cancers develop in the larynx (the part of the throat with the vocal cords), and the other half in the pharynx. Consequently, any cancers (growth and/or spread of abnormal cells that form tumors or metastasize to other parts of the body) that develop in these regions of the throat are considered throat cancers. For this article, the terms throat cancer and larynx cancer will be interchangeable. The term laryngeal cancer also is used to refer to larynx cancer. Nasopharyngeal cancer and oropharyngeal cancer or will not be discussed in this article.Some investigators consider throat cancers a subset of esophageal cancers. For this article, only throat cancers will be discussed. Esophageal cancers have the potential to cause throat symptoms such as burning or pain (pressure) in the throat as well as the chest since they can extend throughout the esophagus from just below the pharynx to the junction of the esophagus and stomach. Moreover, esophageal cancers may include all of the throat cancer signs, symptoms, and most diagnostic and treatment protocols discussed in this article -- particularly when they are located high in the esophagus.The American Cancer Society statistics suggest that about 13,360 new cases of laryngeal cancer will occur in 2017 (10,570 in men and 2,790 in women), with about 3,660 deaths. Five-year survival rates vary somewhat with the location of the cancer and its stage (see below). Most types have a five-year survival rate in stage I and/or II that range from about 53%-64% except for those that occur in the glottis (the part of the larynx including the vocal cords), which is about 74%-90%. Stages III-IV five-year survival varies from about 6%-24%, with stage IV having the lowest five-year survival rate.
What kind of support is available for those with throat cancer?
Most treatment methods involve continued support for those with throat cancer. Patients receive rehabilitation support such as physical, occupational, and speech therapy. Other patients may require additional surgical treatment such as reconstructive surgery and/or dental implants. In addition, speech pathologists, audiologists, and experts in swallowing rehabilitation may be needed. Support groups may provide additional support.
What kinds of specialists treat throat cancer?
Most institutions take a team approach to each individual with throat cancer. In general, depending upon the extent of the individual's cancer (see, TMN system above), a person's team of specialists may include the following:
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
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