About Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD))
Learn about the disease, illness and/or condition Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)) including: symptoms, causes, treatments, contraindications and conditions at ClusterMed.info.
Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD))
|Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD))|
Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)) Information
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) facts
Can PMDD be prevented?
Since PMDD is thought to result from interactions between ovarian hormones and neurotransmitters in the brain, there is no known way to prevent its occurrence.
How is PMDD diagnosed?
PMDD must be distinguished from other physical and psychological conditions that can produce the same symptoms. The differential diagnosis (list of conditions that may produce the same symptoms) includes both mood and anxiety disorders as well as medical conditions such as thyroid disease. In addition to a thorough medical history and physical examination, blood tests may be performed to rule out whether medical conditions may be present that may account for the PMDD symptoms. If PMDD is a concern, it is recommended that women complete a symptom chart or calendar prospectively (meaning that they record their symptoms each day for a given period) to establish the diagnosis. The symptom chart can be compared with the menstrual calendar to illustrate the relationship of symptoms to the menstrual cycle. The American Psychiatric Association has established formal guidelines for the diagnosis of PMDD in their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). The DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of PMDD require prospective documentation of symptoms being present for at least two consecutive menstrual cycles. Five or more of the following symptoms must have been present during the week prior to the menstrual period and resolve within a few days of the start of the woman's period. The symptoms must interfere with the activities of a woman's daily living and not be a result of another condition or illness. At least one of the symptoms must be one of the first four on the list:
What are the complications of PMDD?
PMDD by definition is characterized by symptoms severe enough to interfere with daily functioning and activities. If untreated, these symptoms can significantly impact quality of life and a woman's ability to function at work, school, or home. Further, mood changes and depression that may accompany PMDD can be associated with suicidal thoughts and behavior.
What are the symptoms of PMDD?
Symptoms of PMS and PMDD can be similar but are more intense and debilitating in PMDD. The symptoms of PMDD also may vary among affected women. Some of the most commonly reported symptoms include:
What causes PMDD?
Although the precise cause of PMS and PMDD is unknown, it is believed that these conditions result from the interaction of hormones produced by the ovaries at different stages in the menstrual cycle (such as estrogen and progesterone) with the neurotransmitters (chemicals that serve as messengers) in the brain. While the ovarian hormone levels are normal in women with PMDD, it is likely that the brain's response to these normally-fluctuating hormone levels is abnormal. Most evidence suggests that PMS and PMDD do not result from any specific personality traits or personality types. While stress clearly is associated with PMS and PMDD, it is not considered to be a cause of PMDD. Rather, the associated stress is more likely to be a result of the PMS or PMDD symptoms. Vitamin or other nutritional deficiencies have not been shown to cause PMS or PMDD.
What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)?
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) can be considered a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Both PMS and PMDD are characterized by unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms that occur in the second half of a woman's menstrual cycle, most commonly in the days preceding the menstrual period. Physical symptoms such as bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, joint pain, food cravings, mood swings or frequent crying, panic attacks, fatigue, mood changes, irritability, and trouble focusing are among the most common symptoms. Other symptoms like anxiety and trouble sleeping have been reported. PMS symptoms may be troubling and unpleasant. PMDD may cause severe, debilitating symptoms that interfere with a woman's ability to function.The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists estimates that at least 85 percent of menstruating women have at least one PMS symptom as part of their monthly cycle. PMS is much more common than PMDD. You must have 5 or more of the symptoms listed above to be diagnosed with PMDD.Biologic, psychological, environmental, and social factors all seem to play a part in PMDD. It is important to note that PMDD is not the fault of the woman suffering from it or the result of a "weak" or unstable personality. It is also not something that is "all in the woman's head." Rather, PMDD is a medical illness that impacts only 3% to 8% of women. Fortunately, it can be treated by a health care professional with behavioral and pharmaceutical options.PMDD has been previously medically referred to as late luteal phase dysphoric disorder.
What is the outlook for PMDD?
Although the symptoms of PMDD can be debilitating, treatments are available that are effective in controlling symptoms for a majority of women as described above.
What is the treatment for PMDD?
A number of medical therapies have been shown to be effective in managing PMDD symptoms.Antidepressants (SSRIs)Several members of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class of medications are effective in the treatment of PMDD. These medications work by regulating the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. SSRIs that have shown to be effective in the treatment of PMDD include:
When should I call a doctor about PMDD?
It is appropriate to seek medical care for troubling physical or emotional symptoms related to the menstrual cycle. It is important to note that the depressive symptoms of PMDD may be associated with thoughts of suicide and suicidal behavior. This is a medical emergency for which medical attention should be accessed immediately.
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