Learn about the disease, illness and/or condition Physiologic Jaundice (Newborn Jaundice (Neonatal Jaundice)) including: symptoms, causes, treatments, contraindications and conditions at ClusterMed.info.
Physiologic Jaundice (Newborn Jaundice (Neonatal Jaundice))
|Physiologic Jaundice (Newborn Jaundice (Neonatal Jaundice))|
Physiologic Jaundice (Newborn Jaundice (Neonatal Jaundice)) Information
Breast milk jaundice
This form of jaundice occurs in breastfed newborns and often appears at the end of the first week of life. Certain chemicals in breast milk are thought to be responsible. It is usually a harmless condition that resolves spontaneously. Mothers typically do not have to discontinue breastfeeding.
This form of jaundice occurs when the breastfed newborn does NOT receive adequate breast milk intake. This may occur because of delayed or insufficient milk production by the mother or because of poor feeding by the newborn. This inadequate intake results in dehydration and fewer bowel movements for the newborn, which results in decreased bilirubin excretion from the body.
Cephalohematoma (a collection of blood under the scalp)
Sometimes during the birthing process, the newborn may sustain a bruise or injury to the head, resulting in a blood collection/blood clot under the scalp. As this blood is naturally broken down, sudden elevated levels of bilirubin may overwhelm the processing capability of the newborn's immature liver, resulting in jaundice.
Jaundice is the yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and the whites of the eyes (sclerae) caused by elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia). The term jaundice is derived from the French word jaune, which means yellow. Jaundice is not technically a disease, but rather it is a visible sign of an underlying condition causing increased levels of bilirubin in the blood.
Jaundice in newborns (neonatal jaundice)
Neonatal jaundice is the most common condition requiring medical evaluation in a newborn. Though it is often a normal and transient physiologic consequence of the newborn's immature liver, there are a variety of other medical conditions which can cause severe neonatal jaundice. Jaundice in the newborn must be carefully monitored, as excessively elevated levels of bilirubin that go untreated for too long, can lead to permanent brain damage (a condition termed kernicterus).
Maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility (Rh, ABO)
This form of jaundice occurs when there is incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and the fetus. This leads to increased bilirubin levels from the breakdown of the fetus' red blood cells (hemolysis).
This form of jaundice is usually evident on the second or third day of life. It is the most common cause of newborn jaundice and it is usually a transient and harmless condition. Physiologic jaundice is caused by the inability of the newborn's immature liver to metabolize (conjugate) and thus excrete bilirubin, which accumulates due to the breakdown of red blood cells which have a shorter life-span (70 to 90 days) than adult red blood cells (120 days). This increase in red blood cell breakdown and decreased ability to metabolize bilirubin overwhelms the newborns ability to properly process and excrete bilirubin. As the newborn's liver matures, however, the jaundice eventually disappears after 1 to 2 weeks.
Red blood cell enzyme defects
Inherited genetic enzyme disorders, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency) or pyruvate kinase deficiency, for example, can lead to increased hemolysis and subsequent elevation in bilirubin levels.
Red blood cell membrane defects
Abnormalities in the membrane and shape of red blood cells (for example, spherocytosis) can lead to increased hemolysis. Other causes of neonatal jaundice include prematurity, maternal diabetes, polycythemia, infection/sepsis, hypothyroidism, biliary atresia, cystic fibrosis, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Gilbert syndrome, hepatitis, thalassemia, and galactosemia.
Can jaundice in newborns be prevented?
Some degree of jaundice in newborns is normal and not entirely preventable. However, the prevention of significant hyperbilirubinemia and its complications is possible through proper screening (obtaining bilirubin levels), identifying newborns at high-risk, close surveillance and monitoring of those infants with hyperbilirubinemia, parent education, and prompt treatment when deemed medically indicated.
How is jaundice in newborns diagnosed?
Neonatal jaundice can be diagnosed by examining the newborn and obtaining a blood test to check the total serum bilirubin level. Your health care professional should closely follow your newborn for the development of jaundice, and many hospitals routinely check total bilirubin levels on newborns prior to hospital discharge. Though the blood test is the most accurate, in certain instances, a transcutaneous bilirubin reading can be obtained by placing a handheld sensor against the newborns skin. If this reading is high, a blood test may be ordered to confirm the total bilirubin level. Bilirubin levels are usually highest at 3 of 5 days of life. Additional blood tests may be ordered for those newborns who require treatment and monitoring, or for those who may have other underlying conditions thought to be causing neonatal jaundice.
What are the complications of jaundice in newborns?
The complications associated with neonatal jaundice occur when bilirubin levels reach toxic levels, and the bilirubin gets into the central nervous system and damages the brain. The brain toxicity can either be reversible (early acute bilirubin encephalopathy) or the damage may be permanent and irreversible (kernicterus). Permanent damage may lead to cerebral palsy, deafness, and intellectual impairment.
What are the risk factors for jaundice in newborns?
Approximately 60% of all newborns develop jaundice; however newborns with certain risk factors are at higher risk for developing neonatal jaundice. Risks factors include the following:
What are the symptoms of jaundice in newborns?
Neonatal jaundice may be associated with various symptoms, depending upon the degree of elevation in bilirubin levels as well as the exact cause of the jaundice. The yellow discoloration of the skin will begin on the face and forehead and extend toward the feet as the levels of bilirubin increase. This characteristic progression of jaundice in infants can sometimes allow your health care professional to estimate the bilirubin level based on the location and extent of the jaundice, though this assessment can often be inaccurate. The signs and symptoms associated with neonatal jaundice may include the following:
What causes jaundice in newborns?
Jaundice is caused by the accumulation of bilirubin in the blood, typically from an increased production of bilirubin or a decreased ability to metabolize and excrete it. Bilirubin is formed when red blood cells break down and is normally metabolized in the liver and excreted in urine and feces. Neonatal jaundice can be caused by several different conditions, and it is very commonly seen in newborns. The most common cause in newborns is physiologic jaundice, which affects most newborns and is usually benign. However, there are many other causes of neonatal jaundice that can be more serious, and require further medical evaluation and intervention. A newborn that develops jaundice within the first 24 hours of life requires immediate medical attention. The following are some of the causes of neonatal jaundice.
What is the prognosis of jaundice in newborns?
Generally speaking, the prognosis for newborns with jaundice is excellent if they receive the appropriate monitoring and treatment, and the vast majority of infants with neonatal jaundice will improve with no adverse effects. However, health care professionals need to remain vigilant and parents need be informed and educated about the potential dangers of severe hyperbilirubinemia in order to prevent the devastating consequences of kernicterus.
What is the treatment for jaundice in newborns?
The need to treat jaundice in newborns is determined by interpreting the total bilirubin level in relation to the newborns age in hours. If the level is deemed to be too high, or if it is rising too quickly, treatment is necessary. Sometimes, all that is needed for treatment is close monitoring of the bilirubin levels, and no further interventions may be necessary. In certain instances, treatment for neonatal jaundice can occur at home, while in other cases, admission to a hospital is necessary. Based on the total bilirubin level, the underlying cause leading to jaundice, and the newborns clinical condition, various treatment modalities are available to treat jaundice in newborns. These include the following:
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