Learn about the disease, illness and/or condition Kerasin Histiocytosis (Gaucher Disease) including: symptoms, causes, treatments, contraindications and conditions at ClusterMed.info.
Kerasin Histiocytosis (Gaucher Disease)
|Kerasin Histiocytosis (Gaucher Disease)|
Kerasin Histiocytosis (Gaucher Disease) Information
Gaucher disease facts
How common is Gaucher disease?
In people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent Type 1 Gaucher disease (see below) is more common, and affects 1 out of every 855 people. About 1 out of every 15 people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent are thought to be carriers of the genetic mutation responsible for Gaucher disease. The other types of Gaucher disease do not occur more frequently in people of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage. In the non-Jewish population, Gaucher disease affects 1 out of every 40,000 people.
How is Gaucher disease inherited?
Gaucher disease in inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that both parents must carry a copy of the defective gene in order for a child to be affected.
Is there a test to diagnose Gaucher disease?
A blood test is used to make the diagnosis of Gaucher disease. The enzyme assay test measures activity of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme in certain white blood cells. Having less than 15% of normal enzyme activity is diagnostic for Gaucher disease. Genetic analysis is also done to establish the specific type of mutations in the GBA1 gene.
Should I talk to my family about Gaucher disease?
As with any inherited disease, sharing information with family members is important. If Gaucher disease is identified within a family, other family members may wish to be tested to find out if they are carriers for the gene mutation. Carrier testing is simple and can be performed on a sample of blood or saliva. Your health-care professional can help you decide if carrier testing is appropriate and may refer you to a genetic counselor for more information.
What are the symptoms of Gaucher disease?
The main signs and symptoms of Gaucher disease are:
What are the types of Gaucher disease?
Type 1 Gaucher disease The most common form of the condition is type 1 Gaucher disease. About 90% of people with the condition have this type. The signs and symptoms of this type can vary in their extent of severity. The symptoms can appear in childhood or may be delayed until adulthood. The brain and spinal cord, or central nervous system (CNS), are typically not affected by the disease, so this type is sometimes referred to as non-neuronopathic, meaning that the condition does not affect nerve cells. Type 2 Gaucher disease (acute neuronopathic form) This rare type of Gaucher disease affects the nervous system and is termed neuronopathic Gaucher disease. Signs and symptoms include seizures, eye movement problems, and brain damage. Type 2 Gaucher disease is very severe and typically leads to life-threatening medical problems that begin in infancy. Type 3 Gaucher disease (chronic neoronopathic form) Like Type 2 Gaucher disease, type 3 Gaucher is a neuronopathic for of Gaucher disease that affects the nervous system, but symptoms do not progress as rapidly as in Type 2. The signs and symptoms may appear in infancy or later in childhood. Perinatal lethal Gaucher disease Perinatal lethal Gaucher disease is the most severe form of the condition. With this type, the life-threatening conditions can appear before birth. There may be excessive swelling and fluid accumulation in the fetus (hydrops fetalis) prior to birth. Other features can include severe neurological disturbances, abnormal facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and dry or scaly skin. Most infants with this form of the condition survive only a few days after birth. Cardiovascular Gaucher disease This type of Gaucher disease, considered a rare subgroup of type 3 disease, primarily affects the heart, leading to calcification or hardening of the heart valves. Sometimes, symptoms and signs of other types of Gaucher disease may also be present.
What causes Gaucher disease?
All of the types of Gaucher disease are caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, leading to an abnormal buildup of fatty substances, glycolipids, in the body cells. Mutations in the gene known as GBA1 are the cause of the deficient enzyme, and over 300 different GBA1 mutations have been identified in people with Gaucher disease. The mutations are inherited (passed from parent to offspring) in an autosomal recessive manner (see above). The four most common mutations of GBA1 gene are N370S, L444P, 84gg and IVS2[+1]. DNA analysis for these 4 mutations can detect 90%-95% of the mutations associated with Gaucher Disease in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, and 50%-75% of the associated mutations in the general population.
What help is available for patients and their families living with Gaucher disease?
Living with Gaucher disease or any chronic illness is stressful for both patient and family. Getting help and support are important for achieving the best quality of life possible while facing the challenges and that the illness brings. The National Gaucher Foundation (800-504-3189) offers educational and support services for affected families, including a mentor program, an electronic pen pal program for young adults, real-life patient stories, and numerous educational programs.
What is Gaucher disease?
Gaucher disease (sometimes called Gaucher's disease) is an inherited condition that results in the abnormal accumulation of fatty substances known as glycolipids in different body tissues due to a deficiency of an enzyme known as glucocerebrosidase. There are several different types of the condition, and the signs and symptoms that arise due to the sphingolipid accumulation vary widely. Gaucher disease is due to a genetic defect in a gene known as GBA1. Gaucher disease belongs to a class of diseases called lysosomal storage diseases, named after a type of cell that is affected by the buildup of glycolipids.
What is the prognosis, or life-expectancy, for someone with Gaucher disease?
The prognosis for people with type 1 or type 3 Gaucher disease who receive treatment is very good. Many people with Gaucher disease have few symptoms and can expect a normal life span even without treatment. One study estimated life expectancy at birth for people with type 1 Gaucher disease to be 68 years, compared with 77 years in the general population. Type 2 Gaucher disease usually results in death within the first few years of life.
What is the treatment for Gaucher disease?
There is no cure for Gaucher disease, but medical treatments are available. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is the primary form of treatment for people with type 1 and Gaucher disease and for the non-neurologic symptoms of type 3 Gaucher disease. The drug is given intravenously, generally at 2-week intervals. There are three ERT drugs available, imiglucerase (Cerezyme), velaglucerase alfa (VPRIV), and taliglucerase alfa (Elelyso). Other medications available to treat Gaucher disease include drugs that block the production of the sphingolipids that accumulate in cells and cause symptoms. These drugs are known as glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors and are taken by mouth. Two drugs in this class are miglustat (Zavesca) and eliglustat (Cerdelga). Formerly, the condition was often treated by surgical removal of the spleen (splenectomy). However, this is typically not necessary given the availability of ERT.
What other names are used to refer to Gaucher disease?
Gaucher disease has been referred to in the medical literature by a number of different names. These include:
Which specialties of doctors treat Gaucher disease?
Patients with Gaucher disease may be treated by a number of different medical specialists, depending on the type of the disease and the specific symptoms and signs of the condition they experience. These may include pediatricians, neonatologists, internists, geneticists, neurologists, orthopedists, critical care specialists, cardiologists, and hematologists. Most patients who are treated with enzyme replacement therapy will have their treatment plan managed by a geneticist and/or hematologist.
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