Learn about the disease, illness and/or condition Medial Epicondylitis (Elbow Pain) including: symptoms, causes, treatments, contraindications and conditions at ClusterMed.info.
Medial Epicondylitis (Elbow Pain)
|Medial Epicondylitis (Elbow Pain)
Medial Epicondylitis (Elbow Pain) Information
Elbow pain facts
Can elbow pain be prevented?
To the extent that injuries can be avoided, most causes of elbow pain can be prevented.
How is elbow pain diagnosed?
Elbow pain is most commonly diagnosed simply with a review of the history and physical examination. Most causes of elbow pain require no further testing. As described above, for some diseases, further testing can include X-ray examination, MRI scanning, arthrogram testing, and aspiration of fluid from the involved elbow area.
How is the elbow designed, and what is its function?
The elbow is the joint where three long bones meet in the middle portion of the arm. The bone of the upper arm (humerus) meets the inner bone of the forearm (ulna) and the outer bone of the forearm (radius) to form a hinge joint. The radius and ulna also meet in the elbow to allow for rotation of the forearm. The elbow functions to move the arm like a hinge (forward and backward) and in rotation (twisting outward and inward). The biceps muscle is the major muscle that flexes the elbow hinge. The triceps muscle is the major muscle that extends the elbow hinge. The outer bone of the elbow is referred to as the lateral epicondyle and is a part of the humerus bone. Tendons are attached to this area which can be injured, causing inflammation or tendinitis (lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow"). The inner portion of the elbow is a bony prominence called the medial epicondyle. Additional tendons from the muscles attach here and can be injured, causing medial epicondylitis, "golfer's elbow." A fluid-filled sac (bursa), which serves to reduce friction, overlies the tip of the elbow (olecranon bursa). The elbow can be affected by inflammation of the tendons or the bursae (plural for bursa) or conditions that affect the bones and joints, such as fractures, arthritis, or nerve irritation. Joint pain in the elbow can result from injury or disease involving any of these structures.
What are diseases and conditions that can cause elbow pain, and how are they treated?
Arthritis of the elbow Inflammation of the elbow joint (arthritis) can occur as a result of many systemic forms of arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and reactive arthritis (formerly called Reiter's disease). Generally, they are associated with signs of inflammation of the elbow joint, including heat, warmth, swelling, pain, tenderness, and decreased range of motion. Range of motion of the elbow is decreased with arthritis of the elbow because the swollen joint impedes the range of motion. Cellulitis Inflammation of the skin related to infection (cellulitis) commonly occurs as a result of abrasions of the skin. When abrasions or puncture wounds occur, bacteria on the surface of the skin can invade the deeper layers of the skin. This causes inflamed skin characterized by redness, warmth, and swelling. The most common bacteria that cause cellulitis include Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Patients can have an associated low-grade fever. Cellulitis generally requires antibiotic treatment, either orally or intravenously. Heat application can help in the healing process. Cellulitis can lead to infection of the olecranon bursa, causing olecranon bursitis, as described above. Infected elbow joint (septic arthritis) Infection of the elbow joint with bacteria (septic arthritis) is uncommon. It is most often seen in patients with suppressed immune systems or diabetes, those taking cortisone medications, or intravenous drug abusers. The most common bacteria that cause infection of the elbow joint are Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Septic arthritis of the elbow requires antibiotic treatment and often surgical drainage. It is characterized by heat, swelling, redness, and pain, with limited range of motion of the elbow joint. Septic arthritis is often associated with fever, sweats, and chills. Osteochondritis dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans is an uncommon disease of cartilage in the joint whereby the cartilage effectively flakes away from the bone. This can lead to locking, pain, and loss of range of motion of the elbow. Osteochondritis dissecans is diagnosed by MRI scan or contrast CT scan imaging of the involved elbow joint. This is generally treated by arthroscopic surgical repair and removal of the diseased cartilage. Tumors Bone tumors of the elbow joint are rare. Primary bone cancer can occur. It can be painless or associated with pain in the elbow joint. It is usually detectable by X-ray testing. Nuclear medicine bone scanning can also be helpful for detection. Ulnar nerve entrapment The ulnar nerve is the "funny bone" nerve which travels between the tip of the elbow and the inner elbow bone. At this site it can be "pinched" by normal structures or swollen structures after injury. This pinching is referred to as entrapment. When ulnar nerve entrapment occurs, numbness and tingling of the little and ring finger of the hand may be felt. Pain may occur in the entire forearm, usually the inner side. Hand dexterity can be affected. Sometimes, the numbness is reproduced by elevating the hand. Treatment consists of avoiding repeated trauma or pressure to the elbow area and resting the elbow joint. Occasionally, ice can help. In severe cases, surgical repositioning of the ulnar nerve can be required. This relocates the ulnar nerve to a position where it will not be continually compressed by the surrounding structures.
What are treatments for elbow pain?
The treatment for elbow pain depends on the precise cause of the pain. Treatments for simple inflammation can include immobilization, anti-inflammatory medications, and cold application. Treatments for fracture include casting and surgical repair. Treatments for infection include drainage and antibiotics.
What injuries can cause elbow pain, and what are symptoms and signs of the causes of elbow pain?
Tendinitis (or tendonitis)
What is the prognosis of elbow pain?
The outlook for elbow pain depends on the particular cause as described above.
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